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济南螺杆空压机经常加卸载,出了什么毛病?
Time:2019-05-25 13:18:33       来源:/      

  济南螺杆空压机经常加卸载,出了什么毛病?“螺杆空压机经常加卸载”是一类比拟特殊的毛病,对客户或是一些行业新手来说,以至都还认识不到。有小朋友问起故此成文,缺乏之处敬请海涵。
  Jinan screw air compressor often loads and unloads, what's wrong? "Screw air compressor often loading and unloading" is a kind of special faults, for customers or some industry novices, it is not even known. Some children asked about it, so it's written. What's missing please Haihan.
  这种毛病,机组控制器自身没有任何毛病提示,空压机启停运转、各项电气参数看起来都正常。在一些“大马拉小车”空压机余量比拟大的用气工况下,用气端也觉得不出异常。它不像其它毛病有十分直观的表现,荫蔽性很强,但危害极大。
  This kind of fault, the unit controller itself does not have any fault hints, air compressor start-up and shut-down operation, the various electrical parameters seem to be normal. In some "big horse trolley" air compressor margin comparable to a large number of gas conditions, the use of gas end also feel no abnormality. Unlike other faults, it has a very intuitive performance, strong shade, but great harm.
  那么这种毛病表现方式是什么呢?
  So what is the manifestation of this defect?
  “频繁加卸载”字面意义就是螺杆空压机从加载到卸载的距离时间十分短,而且这个周期频繁。至于这个时间有多短?几秒到十几秒都能够以为是频繁。
  The literal meaning of "frequent loading and unloading" is that the distance between loading and unloading of screw air compressor is very short, and this cycle is frequent. How short is the time? From a few seconds to a dozen seconds, you can think it's frequent.
  毛病表现:低于加载压力→空压机开端加载并排气→压力上升疾速→几秒到十几秒即到达设定的卸载压力→空压机卸载中止排气→压力降落疾速→几秒到十几秒压力降落到设定的加载压力→空压机又开端加载排气...如此循环往复。
  Faults: Lower than the loading pressure air compressor start loading and exhaust pressure rise speed a few seconds to more than ten seconds to reach the set unloading pressure air compressor unloading stop exhaust pressure drop speed a few seconds to more than ten seconds pressure drop to the set loading pressure air compressor start loading exhaust such a cycle to and fro.
  空压机频繁加卸载的危害
  Harm of frequent loading and unloading of air compressor无须置疑,此种毛病对空压机的危害极为严重的,主要是:
  Undoubtedly, this kind of defect is extremely harmful to the air compressor, mainly:
  ①对执行空压机加卸载触及到的运动部件带来严峻考验,如进气阀及其阀组、最小压力阀、泄放阀等,寿命将极大缩短,继而惹起更多其它毛病;②固然频繁加卸载相较频繁启停,对电机、主机的冲劲力没有那么大,但如此轻、重负荷的频繁交替以及光滑条件的频繁变化,对电机、主机的轴承损伤是十分明显的;③频繁加卸载对气路、油路上的过滤安装形成的冲击会招致油分芯、油滤提早失效;④耗电量增大,单位能效极低空压机频繁加卸载的可能缘由及剖析首先要扫除一些瞎胡闹的要素:
  The life of moving parts touched by loading and unloading of air compressors will be greatly shortened, such as intake valves and their valves, minimum pressure valves, relief valves, etc., which will lead to more other problems. Although frequent loading and unloading start and stop frequently, the impulse of motor and main engine is not so great, but the frequent alternation of light and heavy loads and the frequency of smooth conditions. The bearing damage of motors and main engines is very obvious because of various changes. 3. The impact of frequent loading and unloading on the filtration installation of gas and oil circuits will lead to the early failure of oil core separation and oil filtration. 4. With the increase of power consumption, the possible causes of frequent loading and unloading of air compressors with very low unit energy efficiency and the analysis should first remove some of the foolish elements:
                                济南螺杆空压机
  ①没有储气罐或者极小的储气罐,空压机排气量大而用气量小;②单个用气霎时用气量大,而没有配置足够的缓冲储气罐;③加卸载的压力设置过于靠近,如加载6.9bar,卸载7.0bar;其次,理解螺杆机加卸载的控制原理:
  There is no gas storage tank or minimal gas storage tank, the air compressor exhaust volume is large and the gas consumption is small; 2) the gas consumption is large when single gas is used, but there is not enough buffer gas storage tank; 3) the pressure setting of loading and unloading is too close, such as loading 6.9 bar, unloading 7.0 bar; secondly, understand the control principle of screw machine loading and unloading:
  螺杆空压机加卸载的控制逻辑是经过设定的压力值来触发加卸载动作,如6bar加载,7bar卸载。它不同于小型活塞机的压力开关这种机械构造,螺杆机是经过压力变送器来监测压力,压力变送器提供应控制器5~20mA的电信号,由控制器再停止换算和判别,输出电信号控制各种电磁阀以执行加卸载的动作。
  The control logic of screw air compressor loading and unloading is to trigger loading and unloading action by setting pressure value, such as 6bar loading and 7bar unloading. It is different from the mechanical structure of pressure switch of small piston machine. Screw machine monitors pressure through pressure transmitter. Pressure transmitter provides electric signal of 5~20mA of controller. The controller stops conversion and discrimination again, and outputs electric signal to control various solenoid valves for loading and unloading.
  螺杆机的压力变送器采样点普通都设置在空冷却器后,即螺杆机的排气口处。螺杆机的排气口与管网是连通的,保证管网的压力不低于请求的压力是空压机工作的独一目的。所以,当压力采样点监测到压力等于或低于设定的加载压力时,空压机必然加载,反之,当监测到压力等于或高于设置的最高压力时,空压机必然卸载。
  The sampling point of pressure transmitter of screw machine is usually set at the exhaust port of screw machine after the air cooler. The exhaust port of the screw machine is connected with the pipe network, and ensuring that the pressure of the pipe network is not less than the requested pressure is the sole purpose of the work of the air compressor. Therefore, when the pressure sampling point monitors that the pressure is equal to or lower than the set loading pressure, the air compressor must be loaded. On the contrary, when the pressure is equal to or higher than the set maximum pressure, the air compressor must be unloaded.
  空压机加载执行的动作是:空压机进气阀翻开,大量进气,经紧缩、别离、顶开最小压力阀、冷却后排向用气管网;空压机卸载执行的动作是:进气阀关闭,仅极少量进气,泄放阀动作泄放内压(也就是泄放掉最小压力阀之前气路里的压力,普通只保存油循环所需的压力,卸载的时分油气桶内压力普通只要2bar多,以便再次加载时只接受较低的背压,减少能耗),最小压力阀这时起到一个关键的单向止回的作用,不允许管路中的废品紧缩气体反流到油气桶被泄放。
  Loading and executing actions of air compressor are: air compressor intake valve is opened, a large amount of air is intake, through contraction, separation, top-opening the minimum pressure valve, cooling and discharging to the trachea network; unloading action of air compressor is: the intake valve is closed, only a small amount of air is intake, the relief valve action relieves internal pressure (that is, the pressure in the air path before releasing the minimum pressure valve, generally only saves the oil cycle needs. Pressure, unloading time of oil and gas barrel pressure is generally only 2 bars more, in order to re-load only accept lower back pressure, reduce energy consumption, the minimum pressure valve at this time plays a key one-way check role, do not allow waste products in the pipeline to tighten gas back flow to the oil and gas barrel to be released.
  经过以上原理的剖析能够看出,螺杆空压机的加卸载取决于压力采样点的压力变化,那么以下惹起空压机频繁加卸载的缘由就容易了解了:
  Through the analysis of the above principles, it can be seen that the loading and unloading of screw air compressor depends on the pressure change at the pressure sampling point, then the following causes of frequent loading and unloading of air compressor are easy to understand:
  ①空压机出口与储气罐之间能否有止回阀。
  Whether there is a check valve between the air compressor outlet and the gas storage tank?
  这一点,在一切的螺杆机培训中都明白请求不得装置止回阀。这是由于活塞机时期,装置止回阀是规范操作,一些“教师傅”以至是设计院,到如今仍还有这种设计。明白一点:不是说装置了止回阀,螺杆机就一定频繁启动,这与螺杆机的最小压力阀的密封与否有关,假如最小压力阀密封很好,频繁启动则不明显。但是理想是,绝大多数的最小压力阀基本不可能密封。
  This point, in all screw machine training, it is clear that the request should not install check valves. This is due to the piston machine period, the device check valve is standard operation, some "teachers" and even the design institute, up to now there are still such designs. Understand a point: It is not that the screw machine must start frequently when the check valve is installed, which is related to the sealing of the minimum pressure valve of the screw machine. If the minimum pressure valve is well sealed, frequent starting is not obvious. Ideally, however, most minimum pressure valves are virtually impossible to seal.
  假如在空压机与储气罐之间装置止回阀,意味着空压机最小压力阀与止回阀之间的管道会构成一个事实的储气空间。这样会形成压力采样点无法监测到管网的压力变化(止回阀将管道的回流气流隔断了,压力变送器事实上监测到的只是这一段管路里气体的压力)。
  If a check valve is installed between the air compressor and the storage tank, it means that the pipeline between the minimum pressure valve and the check valve of the air compressor will constitute a de facto storage space. In this way, pressure sampling points can not monitor the pressure changes in the pipeline network (check valves cut off the return flow of the pipeline, and the pressure transmitter actually monitors only the pressure of the gas in this section of the pipeline).
  当机组卸载时,此时这一段管路的压力是要高于油气桶内的压力的(如上文所述油气桶的压力被泄放掉了,只要2bar左右),而最小压力阀不可能做到完整的止回密封,必然会向油气桶泄露,加上这段管路的容积本就很小,压力很快就由于泄露被降下来(所以止回阀离空压机排气出口越近频繁加卸载越明显,由于越近,这段管路的容积越小)。
  When the unit is unloaded, the pressure of this section of pipeline is higher than that in the oil and gas barrel (as mentioned above, the pressure of the oil and gas barrel is released, only about 2 bars), and the minimum pressure valve can not achieve complete check seal, it will inevitably leak to the oil and gas barrel, plus the volume cost of this section of pipeline is very small, the pressure will be reduced quickly due to leakage (so check valve). The closer to the exhaust outlet of the air compressor, the more obvious the frequent loading and unloading. The closer the exhaust outlet is, the smaller the volume of the pipeline is.
  机组检测到压力降下来,必然重新加载,当油气桶压力到达最小压力阀开启压力后,气流经空冷向管网活动,很快进步了压力变动器所在的这段管路的压力,直至顶开止回阀与管网的管路连通,可能这时分,管网的压力基本只略微低一点点,自然压力很快就抵达卸载压力,机组执行卸载动作,这就是螺杆机频繁加卸载的缘由。
  When the barrel pressure reaches the minimum opening pressure of the pressure valve, the air flow moves to the pipeline network through air cooling, and the pressure of the pipeline where the pressure changer is located is rapidly increased until the top check valve is connected with the pipeline of the pipeline network. Perhaps at this time, the pressure of the pipeline network is only slightly lower, and the natural pressure will soon reach discharge. Loading pressure and unloading action are the reasons for frequent loading and unloading of screw machines.
  以上发作在空压机的出力大于用气量的状况下,假如空压机和用气量相等或者无法打满压力的状况,是不会呈现频繁加卸载现象的。也就是说空压机不断加载都无法到达卸载压力则不会呈现这种状况。故变频和一些带容调功用的空压机不存在这种状况,即没有卸载的泄放就不会发作这种状况。但不论怎样,螺杆机后装止回阀有害无益。
  If the output of the air compressor is greater than the air consumption, if the air compressor and the air consumption are equal or the pressure can not be filled, the phenomenon of frequent loading and unloading will not occur. That is to say, the unloading pressure can not be reached by the continuous loading of the air compressor, but this situation will not occur. Therefore, this situation does not exist in frequency conversion and some air compressors with capacitive power regulation function, that is, it will not occur without unloading discharge. However, in any case, it is harmful and unhelpful to install a check valve in the back of the screw machine.
  ②当没有发现装置有止回阀的状况下,还有这种现象是为什么呢?
  When no check valve is found in the device, why is this phenomenon?
  经过以上装置止回阀形成频繁加卸载的缘由,发散思想来看,一切可能招致压力采样点左近构成部分封锁管路现象的其它缘由,都可能招致这种状况发作。
  After the reasons of frequent loading and unloading of check valves in the above devices, divergent thinking shows that all other reasons that may cause the blockade of pipelines in the left and near parts of pressure sampling points may cause the occurrence of this situation.
  比方:空压机出口接过滤器,假如这个过滤器梗塞或者严重泡水(气流还是能过去,只是需求足够的背压),由于气流经过过滤器的流速变慢,很容易空压机到过滤器的这段管路(压力采样点在此)就到达设定的压力上限,继而空压机卸载,实践上总管网的压力一定到达了。这段部分管路的高压空气向两低压端(经过过滤器到管网、最小压力阀到油气桶)继续活动,与前文所述一样,由于这段管路容积小,极短时间压力就会快速降落。
  For example, if the outlet of the air compressor is connected with a filter, if the filter is blocked or seriously blistered (air flow can pass through, only enough back pressure is needed), it is easy for the air compressor to reach the set upper pressure limit at the pipeline (pressure sampling point here) where the air compressor passes through the filter, and then unload the air compressor and practice the pressure of the main pipe network. It's bound to arrive. The high-pressure air in this section of the pipeline continues to move toward the two low-pressure ends (through filters to the pipeline network, minimum pressure valve to the oil and gas barrel). As mentioned above, because of the small volume of the pipeline, the pressure will drop rapidly in a very short time.
  由此,空压机出口接较细的管路,储气罐中积水很多,管路中有一些杂物碰巧构成止回效果等都可能形成这种状况。当然还有一些比方压力变送器的压力采样管中有水也有可能会呈现相似的问题。
  As a result, the air compressor outlet is connected with a smaller pipeline, there is a lot of water in the storage tank, and some sundries in the pipeline happen to constitute a check effect, which may form this situation. Of course, there are other examples of pressure transmitter pressure sampling tube water may also present similar problems.
  最后,螺杆空压机的毛病维修,更多的是需求了解其原理以及毛病构成的机理,这样即使经历缺乏,不能很快速的定位问题,但只需方向不错,经过抽丝剥茧,加上胆大心细,就没有处置不了的问题。
  Finally, the defect maintenance of screw air compressor requires more understanding of its principle and the mechanism of defect composition. Even if we lack experience, we can not quickly locate the problem, but as long as the direction is good, after wire pulling and cocoon stripping, coupled with courage and meticulousness, there will be no problem that can not be handled.
 

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